The significant role of chloroplast thioredoxins in the regulation of photosynthesis

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Lyu Lin

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Abstract

This is a review article presenting, comparing and analysing the recent studies on plant chloroplast thioredoxin regulation on photosynthesis. There was a seed paper provided for this essay (Okegawa and Motohashi, 2015). We needed to do further research in the corresponding area and find subsequent journals after this paper, and compare their results and present new findings, as well as showing the importance of these findings and suggest further research directions. Photosynthesis is rather important in plant which converts light into chemical energy to ensure plants’ growth and productivity. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous proteins involved in regulation of redox reaction in chloroplast in photosynthesis. There are multiple isoforms of thioredoxins, and their roles are explained in the article. Trx m is the most abundant protein in chloroplast stroma, which predominantly regulates redox-dependant Calvin cycle enzymes, and further studies demonstrated the role of Trx m in protecting plant photosynthesis from excessive light. Trx f is indispensable for activation of the important Calvin cycle enzymes FBPase and Rubisco activase, and Trx f is essential for plants’ adaptation to short-day conditions and of photosynthetic efficiency. It would be challenging to investigate Trx systems with in vivo studies and produce convincing results. More research is required as the inconsistencies in previous research and the lack of study done in vivo. Regarding the importance of Trx systems in photosynthetic efficiency in plants, it could be used in increasing crop yield for the increasing population worldwide.

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