Europe’s Escape from the Biological Old Regime

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Sarah Hodge


Robert Marks, biological old regime, Europe


What makes the present day so different to the past? The world we now live in is one that has escaped from what Robert Marks called the ‘biological old regime’. The essay looks at three key case studies: expansion within the biological old regime, the escape from the biological old regime and the aftermath of the escape. Examining the ways in which the empires of Europe were increasingly forced to battle against this natural order to continue to expand in power, wealth and population and their eventual forced escape from it can reveal a lot about both the world of the past and the world we live in today.

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